When it comes to questions about academic honesty, never guess!

Thanks to those who attended our recent workshops on Stress-Free Citation & Academic Integrity. Missed it? Get caught up by listening to the recorded sessions below.



Understanding Schulich’s Implementation of the Senate Policy on Academic Honesty, and knowing how to properly cite your work are essential to your success in your program. As a Schulich student you’re responsible for reviewing your Graduate Policy Handbook, and understanding the expectations of your instructors and the School. 

Sometimes there are confusing or grey areas when it comes to conducting research. Below are some of the commonly asked questions, with answers from a business librarian. If you have additional questions about rules and expectations for proper academic citation, academic integrity, or Schulich’s academic policies, please see your instructor, visit the Bronfman Library, or book an academic advising appointment.

Academic Citation FAQs:

1. Do I need to cite images, charts, graphs, articles, and other information sources on my Powerpoint slides?

YES! You should always create citations when you’re using someone else’s work to build your analysis. The Bronfman library recommends creating in-text citations for your slides using APA and then having a References slide at the end of your deck that gives the complete bibliographic information for the sources you’ve used.

2. So I got this amazing chart from IBISworld and I want to copy and paste it into my assignment. Am I allowed to do this?

YES! However, you need to create a citation with the complete bibliographic information in your assignment. In APA, if you want to reproduce a visual information source like a photograph, chart, or table, you would create a note under your reproduction to show where you found it. You don’t include this information in the References List. The Business Citation guide has some handy examples for how to do this.

3. I want to use information from an author that was cited in a different author’s research paper. Am I allowed to do this?

YES! This is called Citing Indirect Sources or Secondary Sources. It’s recommended that you don’t do this very often; instead, it’s better to track down the original author’s work and read that source, especially if it’s easily available! However, if you need to cite an indirect source, here’s how it works in APA:

  • In-text citation: Wood and Logsdon’s study (as cited in Crane & Matten, 2005) discussed how…
    • This gives credit to Wood and Logsdon’s ideas, but shows that you found this information in the Crane and Matten article.
  • Reference list: Matten, D. & Crane, A. (2005, January). Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoretical conceptualization. The Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 166-179. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20159101
    • You would create a complete citation for the source where you found the information on the Wood and Logsdon study. In this case, that would be the Crane and Matten article.

4. I always take detailed notes during my classes at Schulich. If I want to use this information when writing my assignment, do I need to create a citation?

YES! In APA your notes from a lecture are considered to be personal communications. This means that your notes are considered to be an unpublished source. When dealing with an unpublished source, you create an in-text citation in the body of the assignment, but you don’t need to include anything in the References list. Here’s an example:

5. I’m thinking outside the box for my assignment and I’m using a bunch of social media sources like Twitter and YouTube. Do I still need to cite these resources?

YES! Social media and streaming video still count as sources and require an in-text citation in the body of the assignment and a complete Reference list citation. Luckily for you, the Bronfman library has examples for citing social media sources and streaming videos on the Business Citation guide.

Need more help with citation? Using Chicago or MLA and the above doesn’t really help you out?

Then come chat with a Bronfman librarian (online, in-person, by phone or email) and we’ll give you some pointers for creating proper citations in your assignments!

Catch the Business Research Tools webinar at this link.